Ukraine - Ukraine - Economy: Ukraine’s modern economy was developed as an integral part of the larger economy of the Soviet Union. It probably goes without saying, but I meant NMP per capita. The Soviet Union had over 15 different countries under its rule but communism had to reach the entire world so the USSR invaded Afghanistan in the hope of spreading the communist regime. That appears to be the story told by actual Russian GDP statistics : DataBank. Busch, A. E. (1997). [2] The government provides the required economic production that must be attained within the different sectors of a nation’s economic faculties such as a… First, the chart many supporters of the USSR like. In mine, Jamaica appears as the top performer, and Japan comes as second. the failure of the Soviet Union to achieve a western standard of living. Facts, Descriptions, and Statistics; 1917-1928. That aside, this is an informative article. GDP, PPP (constant 2017 international $) GDP (current LCU) GDP, PPP (current international $) GDP per capita growth (annual %) Download. post-fall economic trends. All figures are in 2012 International Dollars according to The World Factbook . - Economía y Libertad. Online tool for visualization and analysis. Flickr / Janette Asche From 1989 to 1998, Russian output dropped 45% , as the economic … A command economy is defined as an economy in which production, investment, prices, and incomes are determined centrally by a government. The Soviet Union: GDP growth | Nintil 2016-05-26T15:11:19Z […] to grow an economy oriented to produce T-72s and MiG-29s than consumer goods. The explanation that you point out has come up a few times in my reading of the literature, but as I've been mostly focusing on macro-trends, I have not really dedicated time to study them. WDI Tables. As you can see in my other posts, healthcare, food consumption, and working conditions were not as good as this GDP comparison might […] Russia and Soviet Union are two sovereign states that stretch across two continents: Asia and Europe. Surely this hardly counts as the last word on the matter, for it is plausible to suppose that the CIA is not the most ubiased source regarding Soviet matters. I guess it would be of interest for me to write another post (I keep wanting to finish writing about the USSR but I keep being drawn in :p) about the micro-causes of the stagnation and ultimate demise of the USSR, but first I want to blog about different things. Post-Stalin USSR dedicated more resources to consumption and less to capital goods. However, if we consider the Soviet Union starting with Stalin and ending in 1989, its performance was not as good. The boom which might have made the USSR the #1 economy today had it kept going at its pre-Khrushchev's pace. Life is still good but growth is not so high as to necessitate pointless waste, nor to run headlong into some sort of horrible resource cap or environmental cliff. It is almost as if STEM shortages are mostly made up to keep wages […], […] a previous entry in The Soviet Series, I made some remarks regarding GDP growth. So it's dubious that such growth rates could have continued indefinitely. Top 15 Former Soviet Union Countries by GDP Per Capita Subscribe for more videos like this! In your last paragraph you mention the counterfactual of pre vs post revolutionary Russia. DataBank. On November 18, 1989, the territory declared its independence from the Soviet Union, and on November 14, 1990, it was renamed the Republic of Georgia. CSV XML EXCEL. […] a previous post, I talked about Soviet GDP growth. His initial goal as general secretary was to revive the Soviet economy, and he realized that doing so would require reforming underlying political and social structures. Could you explain me how did you estimate the hypothetical trajectories of economic growth for each government showed in the last chart? Facts, Descriptions, and Statistics; 1917-1928. (1960-1986) Education of Higher & Secondary Education (1963-1987) Industrial Output of Electricity, Iron Ore, Mineral Fertilizers, etc. He is the savior of the country because he beat the Germans, not because he grew the economy. By the end of 1991 (just before the fall), it had about the same GDP per capita as Mexico. Ronald Reagan and the defeat of the Soviet empire. Meaning that the economic system itself reduced growth in -2.34 points. Soviet Union - Soviet Union - Economic policy: The economic stagnation of the late Brezhnev era was the result of various factors: the exhaustion of easily available resources, especially raw materials, and the growing structural imbalance of the economy due to the distorting effects of the incentive system, which paralyzed initiative and dissuaded people from doing an honest day’s work. GNP: approximately $2,660 billion, per capita $9,130; real growth rate - 2.4% to - 5.0% (1990 est. Rather than the prevalence of unemployment, as we are used to, the Soviet Union not only achieved full employment, but also got to a situation where there were_shortages of labour,_even though a significant share of the population was working. Lots of charts. Even though we do not consider the human tragedy of famine, repression and terror, and focus on economic outcomes alone, and even when we make assumptions that are biased in Stalin’s favour, his economic policies underperform the counterfactual. In academic work, please cite this essay as: Ricón, José Luis, “The Soviet Union: GDP growth”, Nintil (2016-03-26), available at https://nintil.com/the-soviet-union-gdp-growth/. Online tool for visualization and analysis. Adding the 1940 GDP of the USSR to that of the UK shifted the Allies to Axis great power GDP ratio to 1.31, giving the Allies the economic advantage lost with the entry of Italy in 1940. In 1964, new Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev allowed industries to emphasize profit over production. If you consider that period of history which we Leninists label the non-revisionist period of the USSR, there is no greater economic boom in modern history (despite the 3 wars). Relations between the Soviet Union and the United States were driven by a complex interplay of ideological, political, and economic factors, which led to shifts between cautious cooperation and often bitter superpower rivalry over the years. No wonder the world is growing stronger and stronger when the rate of technological advancement has entered a logarithmic curve. List of former Soviet Republics by GDP (PPP) per capita Template:Rank order This is a list of former Soviet Republics by GDP per capita at Purchasing Power Parity . ", Harrison, Mark. "Technological Modernisation in the Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Russia: Practices and Continuities. "Soviet Economic Growth: 1928-1985,", This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 23:01. The Soviet Union is no more, but the comparative level and structure of its GDP retain historical interest. If the USSR had an impact in the world, it was due to its size, natural resources, population, and strong military, not because it was more productive than other countries. title: a comparison of soviet and us gross national products, 1960-83 (sov 84-10114) keywords: soviet analysis, soviet economic analysis created date To estimate, compare, distinguish, discuss, and trace to its principal sources everything, Cheremukhin, Golosov,Guriev, and Tsyvinski (2013), Three most interesting articles of the day (May 31) | BAIL: Bay Area International Link, The Soviet Union: Productive Efficiency | Nintil, Annual reviews and other Soviet business practices – Money, Power, and Culture, The Soviet Series: From farm to factory. Beginning in 1928, the course of the economy of the Soviet Union was guided by a series of five-year plans. Here we have data for far more countries, and we avoid the effect of WWII. The Maddison Project has updated data, so I first attempt to replicate his Figure 1.1. So Allen's chart is correct. Here's how it's done [Part of the Soviet Union series]. CRS Report for Congress, March. The USSR was the third fastest growing economy in the world in the 1928-1970 period (Including countries for which we have 1928 data). The economy of the Soviet Union was based on state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, and industrial manufacturing.The highly centralized Soviet-type economic planning was managed by the administrative-command system.The Soviet economy was characterized by state control of investment, a dependence on natural resources, shortages, public ownership of industrial … Princeton University Press. Also it would be interesting to see PPP graphs included in the article. The Soviet economic decline. I see the Brezhnevian stagnation (Under Brezhnev, Andropov, Chernenko and Gorbachev, as the Perestroika did little to change the trend) as a followup from previous policies to Stalin-Khrushchev. A chart with growth rates for the Soviet Union and the Former Soviet Union (basically, Russia). The dissolution of the Soviet Union took place as a result and against the backdrop of general economic stagnation, even regression. Against these charts, it could be argued that these measures of GDP don't really capture the welfare of the inhabitants of these countries. w19425). Fair enough, we could then study those other indicators and examine quality of life in a different way. Price controls had an important impact on life in the USSR. FACEBOOK TWITTER LINKEDIN By Matthew Johnston. The USSR did grow quite fast under Stalin. Now, the USSR is below South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Portugal, Finland, Singapore, Italy, Norway, and Thailand. Since I know a bit of the USSR's history I have a different approach to your conclusion that the growth was a one-off event. Markup: Brian Baggins Online Version: Soviet History Archive (marxists.org) 2000 In Soviet statistics, 100% is the base, so if that is listed it means unchanged. The Economic Collapse of the Soviet Union: In the 1970's and 1980's the Soviet Union seemed to be one of the most stable political units in the world. Allen stops at 1970 because until then 'the planning system was working well'. and I have a post up on that https://nintil.com/2017/02/04/the-soviet-series-from-farm-to-factory-stalins-industrial-revolution/ . title: a comparison of soviet and us gross national products, 1960-83 (sov 84-10114) keywords: soviet analysis, soviet economic analysis created date Very interesting. Thematic data tables from WDI. By the 1970s, on that measure, the Soviet Union became the world’s leading power. We must also note that the FSU is recovering from a crisis, which makes easier to have larger growth rates. While Stalin's industrialization was terribly cruel and not very efficient it was above all fast. Soviet Union GDP in 1989: $2.6 trillion, USA $5.6 trillion. NEP was the most successful period for the Soviet economy Average annual rates of economic growth in the USSR, % 16.2-6.9-4.3 14.6 11.3 9.4 6.3 7.8 5.6 4.3 3.6 17.7-15.3 3.4-0.6 9.3 4.4 4.1 3.2 1 0.6-20-15-10-5 0 5 10 15 20 1913 1917 1921 1928 1932 1937 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 Official Statistics Alternative Estimate We can then say that the impressive growth of the Soviet Union was a one-off event, produced by Stalin's industrial policies. By 1970, the Soviet economy reached its high point, with a GDP estimated at about 60% that of the United States. Both the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union, were countries in the process of industrialization. The Soviet labour 'market' was a peculiar one. Especially one where the economy is more in the hands of the executive rather than less. South Korea GDP, PPP (constant 2017 international $) GDP (current LCU) GDP, PPP (current international $) GDP per capita growth (annual %) Download. Gradually but surely. They ultimately explain this by what the dub the _extensive growth hypothesis: _Growth fueled by increasing the amount of available factors (Labour and Capital) rather than increasing productivity. Their accurate measurement is also basic to a proper understanding of the latest, i.e. (2013). You can't measure GDP in a non-market economy, by definition they're not using the prie mechanism to determine production, so you can't just invent one to quantify their GDP - that would make you a central planner just as much as the people that ran the Communist economies. (1940-1985) There's data for that. To finish, the Stalin question. I refer to you to this other post of mine for more info on this. The Soviet Union represented 20% of the world's economy in 1966 (highest point) and at the … By this time, about 18% of the population lived in non-rural areas, although only about 7.5% were employed in th… Their accurate measurement is also basic to a proper understanding of the latest, i.e. CSV XML EXCEL. The United States and Switzerland (Or any developed country) illustrate an effect that wasn't obvious from the previous charts: that it isn't fair to compare the rates of growth between these countries and the SU. I'm wondering if there are actually any sources available which let you calculate and compare actual (as in, not distorted by the government) NMP numbers for both sides of the Iron Curtain (plus the USA); I'm curious to see how the West matches up with the East at their own game. The Post-Soviet Union Russian Economy. GDP, PPP (constant 2017 international $) GDP (current LCU) GDP, PPP (current international $) GDP per capita growth (annual %) Download. Many historians believe that the two policies he put in place to address the nations challenges, glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring), hastened the dissolution of the Soviet system, which was already in decline. When extended to 1991, the USSR is also overtaken by Spain, Jamaica, and Singapore. Posted by u/[deleted] 1 year ago. Oh and one last thing. Or maybe it is, if US policymakers required accurate information precisely to gauge their cold war rival accurately. 1 An analysis of the Soviet economic growth from the 1950’s to the collapse of USSR*. You can see them here. Online tool for visualization and analysis. Because of World War I (1914–1918), the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War(1917–1922), industrial production had only managed to barely recover its 1913 level by 1926. Former Soviet Union Countries Comparison by GDP per Capita 1995-2018 Don't forget to subscribe and write a comment! In 1979, however, costs of the Afghanistan War took the wind out of the Soviet economy’s sails. For both, this development occurred slowly and from a low initial starting point. I made a few more plots to complement the ones there, including some sensitivity analysis for […]. The Soviet Union: GDP growth | Nintil 2016-05-26T15:11:19Z […] to grow an economy oriented to produce T-72s and MiG-29s than consumer goods. Each of them have their own culture, traditions, languages as well as customs, however they all share the history with Russia. Armenia The country located at region of Eurasia in the South Caucasus. The USSR doesn't do particularly well in this metric. National Bureau of Economic Research. As you can see in my other posts, healthcare, food consumption, and working conditions were not as good as this GDP comparison might suggest. About industrialisation, the issue is that you have to decide to allocate resources to consumption or investment (for further industrialisation). The second great war was looming on the horizon and Stalin's quick industrialization is credited with allowing the USSR to stand up to the Germans. (1941-1989) Annual Per Capita Consumption of Sugar, Bakery Products, Meat, etc. "The Soviet Union after 1945: Economic Recovery and Political Repression,", Ofer, Gur. WDI Tables. [Part of the Soviet Union series]. (No. But still, it's not that bad, certainly better than my charts above suggest. Hong Kong tells roughly the same story as Singapore: that you can be really poor and grow rich with adequate institutions and capitalism. Annual Growth Rates of Gross Social Product, Labour Productivity, Industrial Output, etc. The Soviet Union officially fell on December, 26 1991 when the USSR was dissolved and the communist-era policies of the region ceased. – Juan Ramón rallo | elcato.org – Verdades Ofenden, ¿Fue la Revolución rusa un éxito económico? http://www.ggdc.net/maddison./ARTICLES/USSR,RIW,1998.pdf Established in 1921 and remaining in existence until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Gosplan had as its main task the creation and administration of a series of five-year plans governing the economy of the USSR. This is not necessarily bad: it means people can enjoy more things, but it means they will enjoy less things in the future than otherwise they would have. GDP growth for the Soviet Union in that period was 2.36% vs 2.00% for the West. Online Version: Soviet History Archive (marxists.org) 2000 In Soviet statistics, 100% is the base, so if that is listed it means unchanged. The question would then be to explain why did it grow so fast, why did it stagnate, and why Cheremukhin, Golosov et al. The Republic of Georgia is at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. In this post, I will discuss the healthcare system in the Soviet […]. Still in the upper 50%! find that it wasn't because of Stalin, while Allen finds the opposite (I'll write a followup post explaining that). That, combined with a low elasticity of capital-labour substitution (Using a CES production function, they get 0.4) meant that diminishing returns to capital would ultimately stall growth when the capital share of the economy began to reduce as the economy shifted to consumer goods. (2002, March). CSV XML EXCEL. Spain doesn't appear in the 1928-1989 chart because of the 1936-39 civil war. Selected Countries and … Allied GDP was superior to that of Germany/Austria. But Easterly & Fischer (1995) run a regression for the 1960-1989 period, controlling for variables such as initial GDP, share of investment, and secondary school enrollment. SHOW ALL. The capital was … GDP, PPP (constant 2017 international $) GDP (current LCU) GDP, PPP (current international $) GDP per capita growth (annual %) Download. The Soviet Union represented 20% of the world's economy in 1966 (highest point) and at the year of its dissolution (1991) only produced 7.58% of the world's economy (lowest point). As the Gosplan, which had set up production chains to cross SSR lines, broke down, the inter-republic economic connections were also disrupted, leading to even more serious breakdown of the post-Soviet economies. However, with French GDP included in the Axis tally, the ratio was 1.01. The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Defense Budget for FY2003: Data Summary. What about Robert Allen's From Farm to Factory? Therefore, it is important to have a look at the difference between Russia and Soviet Union. Source: Slavic Research Center Library (citing Narkhoz.) Some data on soviet GDP growth. We can then compare the Soviet Union to the United States. Next, I consider the period 1928-1989 and 1928-1991. Russia - Russia - Post-Soviet Russia: The U.S.S.R. legally ceased to exist on December 31, 1991. Humans barely scratch whats knowable or possible in the universe currently, […] paper first analyses growth (something I also did here, updated with their conclusions), and find it wanting once usual suspects (initial GDP, population […]. Formerly known as Soviet Georgia or Georgian SSR, the region covers an area of 27,000 square miles. If one accepts that the slowdown in the USSR was due to decreasing returns to capital, or decreased productivity, etc, one can still ask why that happened, and indeed it could be that it was the decentralisation under Khruschev and Gorbachev. Cheremukhin, A., Golosov, M., Guriev, S., & Tsyvinski, A. Bonus link: USA vs USSR industrial capacity. Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; U.S.S.R.), former northern Eurasian empire (1917/22–1991) stretching from the Baltic and Black seas to the Pacific Ocean and, in its final years, consisting of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics. From what I recall, didn't the Eastern Bloc use net material product (NMP; basically GDP minus "non-productive" services) instead of GDP to estimate national income? Allen uses Maddison (1995) data for his charts. Robert Allen did work on that counterfactual, including extending Lenin's NEP rather than having Stalinism (Is this what you had in mind with the non-revisionist period?) National Accounts Estimates of Main Aggregates Source: United Nations Statistics Division. WDI Tables. Thematic data tables from WDI. In 1952, the Soviet Union was only behind Ireland and Western Europe as a whole. The Soviet Union was here the 61th out of 148 economies in growth. In 2012, Russia's Nominal GDP share was at 2.82% (highest point) and reached a nadir in 1998 (1.38%) before ending up at 1.9% in 2010. Because of World War I, the Russian Revolution and the ensuing Russian Civil Warindustrial production had only managed to barely recover its 1913 level by 1926. It supposedly shows that the soviet economy worked relatively well, and that industrialisation and growth were due precisely to central planning, when the Soviet Union was formed, in 1922, after the revolution in 1917. But it is hard to view the economics of a state in a vacuum affected only be economic policies of that state. The analysis above may need some further reconsideration. And in case you were wondering about Cuba, here's the data for Cuba and some countries in its surroundings. Life is reliable, stable and relatively comfortable; but not so comfortable that you start to live for comfort. (Edit) But wait! That's why I included fewer countries, to make my life easier. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 1,789: Source. Outside estimates of Soviet military spending ranged between 10 and 20 percent of GDP, and, even within the Soviet Union itself, it was difficult to produce an exact accounting because the military budget involved a variety of government ministries, each with its own competing interests. For both, this development occurred slowly and from a low initial starting-point. Russia's economic output plummeted 45% in the decade after the Soviet Union broke up. CSV XML EXCEL. This video was made possible by our Patreon community! Geopolitical policies (such as over-investment in the military over quality of life or over-investment in supporting foreign states and trying to sell the brand) greatly if not overwhelmingly impact a state's economic performance. An analysis of Allen's book can be found here. We will review lots of papers in this post, so we need not worry about this. The Nazi-Soviet Pact certainly neutralized the economic weight of the USSR and it may have been interpreted as a German/Austrian alliance with the Soviet Union. Selected Countries and … […] The Soviet Union: GDP growth (Nintil) […]. This is not an speculation of mine, it is the consensus view of why the USSR ended up stagnating (Though this by itself did not cause its collapse). Both the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union, were countries in the process of industrialization. Former USSR countries GDP 1990 - 2019 GDP (gross domestic product) is the value of everything that is produced in the country. Introduction The Soviet Union is no more, but the comparative level and structure of its GDP retain historical interest. It would need more attention to dates and details to verify this but my explanation for the different rates of GDP growth is that starting from Khrushchev onwards the USSR's economy was "liberated" as in less centralized and more opened to the market. So in a planned economy, which it was under Stalin, there is no reason to expect industrialization to end unless it's specifically decided by the people (or Stalin if you believe he decided everything), and why would they? The charts presented until now are controlling just for initial GDP. Archived. We can then compare the USSR with other countries that had similar incomes in 1930. Did Stalin help industrialise Russia? If you think about it, there is no reason to expect the industrialization of a country to ever be considered "done" until you have full automation of all work. If you wanted to compare using, e.g. The Maddison-Project, http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/home.htm, 2013 version. So GDP growth, I expect, should have kept a steady pace. Doing that we get this chart: I included countries already chosen in previous charts, plus averages for Africa, Latin America and Western Europe. After all, the Soviet Union, like today’s Russia, was a major oil and gas producer and tended (like today’s Russia) to do well whenever oil was expensive. Furthermore, if we consider the post-WWII performance of the Soviet Union in comparison to other countries, it shows signs of stagnation. 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